National education policy


Recently on 29th July, the Union Cabinet cleared a new National Education Policy (NEP) targeting changes in current education specific to school and higher education.

Before moving into detail, let’s explore the history of NEP.

It takes almost few decades to implement the changes into the education policies. The first changes came into force in the year 1968, second in 1986 and now the third in 2020. This time it takes more than 3 decades to replace the existing National Education Policy (NEP).



1968 → 1986 → 2020

What is the purpose of the National Education Policy?

The purpose of a National Education Policy (NEP) is to implement a structure to develop education in the country with clear objectives. Time to time, the Government makes changes to the policy to make it effective in comparison to global education and development of the education system within the country.

This time Government, made huge changes to completely replace the existing NEP.


Benefits aiming National Education Policy (NEP) – 2020

  • Helping to identify and recognize the unique capability of each student, in collaboration with teachers and parents to develop each student toward the future in both academic and non-academic areas
  • Enhancing literacy and numeracy for all the student till grade 3
  • Flexible education program to boost current India’s education system based on student interest
  • No discrimination between science, arts and commerce stream
  • Boost the education system to give student the ability to grow whatever the stream/field
  • Major focus on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning
  • Encouraging creative think by developing analytical and decision making capability within student
  • Boosting national and regional language to promote multilingual capability
  • Regular assessment instead of yearly assessment specific to subject
  • Boost communication, cooperation and teamwork skill
  • Enhance the existing education system by incorporating the interactive learning concept to drive better student engagement
  • Enabling transparency into the education system
  • Single entrance exam for all undergraduate program to reduce discrepancy

education policy 2020

Highlights of the NEP 2020

  1. Incorporation of 4 years multidisciplinary undergraduate program with multiple exit options
  2. Discontinuation of MPhil programmer
  3. 10+2 school education has been replaced with “5+3+3+4”
    • First – 5 years – Foundation stage correspond to age group 3-8 years
    • Second – 8 to 11 years age correspond to preparatory stage
    • Third 11 to 14 years of age correspond to middle
    • Last 14 to 18 years age correspond to secondary stage
  4. In comparison to existing Mid-day meal, now it will extend it to pre-school
  5. There will be common entrance exam for university entrance
  6. Mother tongue or regional language should be incorporated for student till class 5
  7. Board exams will be low stake
  8. The major focus will be done on identifying specific quality within each student


Now, Let’s move the dipper to get insight on each of the changes that are going to be part of 2020 National Education Policy (NEP).



School Education

  1. Early education is more important as it is a base and over all brain development happens prior to 6 year of age. So, this is the main purpose of placing the existing 10+2 with 5+3+3+4 as specified in the below image.
  2. Currently, education specific to ages 3 to 6 is not included in the 10+2 structure. This new education structure, 5+3+3+4 structure, helps to develop a strong base at the early stage – age 3 aiming to develop overall learning, development and well-being.
  3. Class 10 and 12 board examinations to be made easier, to test core competencies rather than memorised facts.
  4. Focus more on literacy and numeracy throughout the education with flexible and activity-based learning.
  5. Incorporation of vocation education from class 6 in combination of internship.
  6. Mother tongue/regional language is going to be the part of the initial 5 year of education system at least.
  7. Instead of a subject related report card, the NEP will incorporate a 360 degree holistic progress card to check the student capability and strength across different subject and curriculum programs.
  8. By 2030, the minimum qualification required to teach students would be 4 years integrated B.ED degree.



Higher Education

  1. NEP aims to increase enrollment to higher education by 50% by 2035.
  2. Flexible undergraduate program with flexible curriculum. The duration can be 3 to 4 years with multiple exit options and appropriate certificates.
  3. M.Phil will be discontinued and all the undergraduate, post graduate and Phd will be part of interdisciplinary.
  4. The National Research Foundation will be formed as an APEX body to boost the research culture across higher education.
  5. The higher education commission of India will create a single entrance exam for entire education except legal and medical. Higher education commission of India will going to have four unique verticals to formulate the whole exam and process –
    • To establish regulation, National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) will be responsible
    • To implement standard setting, General Education Council (GEC) will be responsible
    • In order to issue funding, Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) will be responsible
    • For accreditation, National Accreditation Council (NAC) will be responsible
  6. College affiliation will be phased out for 15 years and after every 15 years revision will be done in terms of whether the college should be part of the university by evaluating various factors





Other important part of NEP

  1. National assessment center “PARAKH” will be created to assess student capability and strength.
  2. Emphasis is given on setting up foreign universities based campus within India.
  3. Target to improve the public investment in education and exceed it to 6% GDP as soon as possible. At present we have a total of 4.6% GDP in education.
  4. An autonomous body will be formed called – National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), with the aim to provide a platform that helps to exchange innovative ideas to use technology, interactive learning, planning, administration, etc.
  5. Financial support will be provided to the students belonging to weaker sections of the society – SC, ST, OBC, etc.
  6. Encouraging private institutions to offer scholarships to their students.


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